First Florida Oil Well

Humble Oil found oil in 1943, after desperate lawmakers offered a $50,000 bounty.


Among its petroleum history records, Florida’s first — but certainly not last — unsuccessful attempt to find commercially viable oil reserves began in 1901, not far from the Gulf Coast panhandle town of Pensacola. Two test wells, the first drilled to 1,620 feet and the second reaching 100 feet deeper, were abandoned.

Whether the wildcatter had followed science or intuition, contemporary accounts of his efforts reveal only a small footnote: Florida’s first two dry holes. Twenty years later, as U.S. petroleum demand soared, oil still had not been found in Florida. The state’s panhandle still looked promising, despite a growing number of failed drilling ventures.

first florida oil well oil pumps at Collier County Museum

Florida’s first oil well’s site is by present day Big Cypress Preserve in southwest Florida, about a 30 minute drive from the resort city of Naples.

Indian legends and a petroleum company’s stock promoter’s claim of oil inspired another attempt near what would later become Falling Waters Park, about 100 miles east of Pensacola. A steam-powered cable-tool rig with a wooden derrick drilled to a depth of 3,900 feet.

Brief signs of natural gas at the well excited area residents with a false report of a possible gusher. Undeterred, the exploration company continued to drill to 4,912 feet before finally giving up. No commercial amount of oil was found and the well was capped in 1921. Another Florida dry hole. (more…)

Indiana Natural Gas Boom

Abundant alternative to coal attracted late 19th century manufacturers.


Natural gas discoveries of the 1880s revealed the giant Trenton Field in Indiana, which extended into Ohio. New pipelines and abundant gas supplies would attract manufacturing industries to the Midwest — where small towns competed with cities to attract new industries. It was an Indiana natural gas boom too good to last.

Discoveries of natural gas in Eaton and Portland quickly ignited Indiana’s historic gas boom. New exploration and production will dramatically change the state’s economy.  In 1859, the same year that “Colonel” Edwin L. Drake drilled the country’s first commercial oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania, there already were almost 300 “manufactured gas” (known as coal gas) companies in the 33 United States.

Coal gas was produced in a distillation process that extracted it from wood or coal. After further purification, coal gas was distributed via low-pressure street mains to consumers. America’s first public street lamp used it to illuminate Market Street in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1817. Coal gas, also called manufactured gas, eventually would provide home illumination to almost five million U.S. customers.

Natural gas flambeaux light streets in Indiana, wasting the gas.

Indiana lawmakers banned “flambeaux” lights in 1891, becoming one of the first states to legislate conservation. Photo of Findlay during its 1888 Gas Jubilee courtesy Hancock Historical Museum.

Although natural gas was known to burn much cleaner, hotter, and more efficiently than coal gas, pre-Civil War technology made handling it far too dangerous for commercial applications. When drilling for oil, natural gas was often found — a colorless, odorless, highly flammable and unwelcome hazard.

Drillers sought oil to send to refiners for distilling into kerosene, a safe and affordable lamp fuel. But while demand for kerosene built wooden derricks up and down the Allegheny River, and the coal gas business still prospered, natural gas was just an impediment.


First Utah Oil Wells

Determination and deeper wells launched state’s petroleum industry in 1948.

After decades of expensive failed exploration attempts (a few small producers but mostly dry holes), the first significant Utah oil well was competed on September 18, 1948, in the Uinta Basin. The Ashley Valley No. 1 well, about 10 miles southeast of Vernal, produced about 300 barrels a day from a depth of 4,152 feet.

“The honor of bringing in the state’s first commercial oil well went not to the ‘Majors’ but to an ‘Independent’ — the Equity Oil Company,” noted a Utah historian in 1962.

 The Uinta Basin drilling courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

The Uinta Basin witnessed Utah’s first drilling boom following a 1948 oil discovery. A modern boom would return thanks to coalbed methane gas. Photo courtesy Utah State Historical Society.


First California Oil Wells

1876 Pico Canyon oil well brought pipelines, refineries, and Chevron.


Following an 1859 oil discovery in Pennsylvania, America’s early oil exploration companies began reaching the West Coast, attracted by California’s natural oil seeps. Some made small but historic discoveries of “black gold” soon after the Civil War. The state’s first gusher arrived in 1876 — and launched the California petroleum industry.

The Pico Canyon produced limited amounts of crude oil as early as 1855, but there was no market for the oil, which was found near oil seeps about 35 miles north of Los Angeles. But in northern California, an 1865 well near oil seeps in Humboldt County also could be considered the first California oil well.

Humboldt County Oil

Drilled by the Old Union Matolle Company soon after the end of the Civil War, the Humboldt County well produced oil near aptly named Petrolia and attracted early exploration companies to the oilfield.

A California historical marker (no. 543) dedicated on November 10, 1955 declared:

California’s First Drilled Oil Wells — California’s first drilled oil wells producing crude to be refined and sold commercially were located on the north fork of the River approximately three miles east of here. The Old Union Mattole Oil Company made its first shipment of oil from here in June 1865 to a San Francisco refinery. Many old well heads remain today.

Although the “Old Union well” initially yielded about 30 barrels of high quality oil, production declined to one barrel of oil day and the prospect was abandoned, according to K.R. Aalto, a geologist at Humboldt State University. (more…)

First Texas Oil Well

An 1866 well in Nacogdoches County, Texas, produced 10 barrels of oil.

Lyne Taliaferro Barret completed the first Texas oil well on September 12, 1866, west of the Sabine River. His Nacogdoches County discovery well did not produce commercial quantities of oil; it lay dormant for nearly two decades until others returned to Barret’s oilfield. 

In December 1859, less than four months after Edwin L. Drake’s first U.S. oil well drilled in Pennsylvania, a similarly determined petroleum explorer named Lyne (Lynis) Taliaferro Barret began searching in an East Texas area known as Oil Springs.

The 1848 invention of “coal oil” —  kerosene — had prompted demand for an illuminating lamp fuel made from oil, inspiring speculation and drilling. 

First Lone Star State Oil Discovery

Native Americans had long known of the eastern Texas natural seeps. Early settlers used oil for its purported medicinal benefit for both themselves and their livestock.

First Texas oil well rare map of east Texas oil well site

Lyne T. Barret leased land just east of Nacogdoches, an area known for its oil seeps. Detail from Texas & New Orleans Railroad map (1860) courtesy David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.

Lyne Barret’s interest in finding the newly prized resource was no doubt prompted by its lucrative $20 a barrel selling price.  He joined the chase for petroleum riches, but prudently continued to operate his successful mercantile partnership in Melrose.

Governor Hogg’s Texas Oil Wells

Hogg family fortunate his will stipulated keeping mineral rights.


In 1917, the Tyndall-Wyoming Oil Company’s No. 1 Hogg well discovered oil south of Houston and ended a streak of dry holes dating back to 1901 – when former Texas Governor James S. “Big Jim” Hogg first thought oil might be there and leased the land.

Gov. Hogg, the Lone Star State’s 20th governor, died in 1906, never seeing the Texas drilling boom he helped launch. His unwavering belief in finding oil in the Gulf Coast region’s highly prolific salt dome geology would benefit the Texas petroleum industry.


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