The red neon Pegasus again soars above the Magnolia Petroleum building in Dallas.

Mobil Oil’s giant red Pegasus was perched on the historic Magnolia building from 1934 until August 1999, when rust and structural issues forced its removal. On Jan. 1, 2000, a carefully crafted duplicate replaced it atop today’s Dallas Magnolia Hotel.

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The rotating 35-foot by 40-foot Pegasus sign first beamed its red neon glow above a Dallas hotel in 1934.

The twin flying red horses – one on each side – and the neon glow once are again bright. The popular high-flying trademark was recreated by the American Porcelain Enamel Co. of Dallas.

Another Dallas hotel restored part of the Magnolia building’s original Pegasus after locating it in a city-owned shed. The Omni Dallas Hotel then funded a restoration and re-fabrication, and in 2015 the red neon-edged symbol (now one-sided) was re-lit in front of the hotel on Lamar Street.

Wherever seen today, the Mobil Oil (now ExxonMobil) trademark has been a feature of Dallas since first welcoming attendees to a 1934 petroleum convention. It remains among the most well recognizable corporate symbols in American history.

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The Vacuum Oil Company trademarked the Pegasus logo in 1911 and by the 1930s was marketing Pegasus Motor Spirits and Mobiloil. Completed in 1922, the Magnolia Petroleum building was “a great peg driven into the ground holding Dallas in its place.”

When the 400-foot-tall Magnolia Petroleum building opened in 1922, it was the city’s first skyscraper – and tallest building west of the Mississippi River. With 29 floors and seven elevators, the Magnolia building towered over the nearby Adolphus Hotel, built in 1913. It was designed by Sir Alfred Bossom of the United Kingdom in a “modified classical design.”

The Magnolia also was the first high rise in the United States to have air conditioning, according to the management company that acquired the building in 1997. The restored lobby features a gold leaf decorative plaster and the original elevator doors engraved with the Pegasus logo. With much of the original architecture’s classical design and gold leaf restored in 1999, the Dallas Magnolia Hotel has become a “boutique hotel” blending its past with modern amenities.

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More than 70 years old, this 11-foot Pegasus dominates the lobby of the Old Red Museum of the Dallas County History and Culture. The winged logo was originally displayed at the 1939 World’s Fair – and later atop a Mobil gas station in Casa Linda in East Dallas.

After the 1922 opening, a local reporter described the Magnolia – which cost the oil company $4 million to build – as “a great peg driven into the ground holding Dallas in its place.” In 1925, when Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony) acquired Magnolia Petroleum Company, the Dallas headquarters building was included. Nine years later Pegasus would land on the roof.

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Pegasus begins

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Vacuum Oil Company’s products used a gargoyle prior to adopting the winged horse of mythology.

The flying red horses began their journey in 1911, when a Vacuum Oil Company subsidiary in Cape Town, South Africa, first trademarked the Pegasus logo. Based in Rochester, New York, Vacuum Oil had built a successful petroleum lubricants business around an 1869 patent by its founder, Hiram Everest, long before gasoline was even a branded product.

At first, a stylized red gargoyle advertised the company, which produced early petroleum-based lubricants for horse-drawn carriages and steam engines.

The Pegasus trademark proved to be a more enduring image. In Greek mythology, Pegasus – a winged horse – carried thunderbolts for Zeus. By 1931 growth of the automobile industry expanded the Vacuum Oil product lineup to include Pegasus Spirits and Mobilgas – later simplified to Mobil.

When Standard Oil of New York and Vacuum Oil combined to form Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, the new company adopted the familiar winged trademark, as does an affiliate, Magnolia Petroleum.

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The certificate from Cape Town, South Africa, notes that the “Vacuum Oil Company of South Africa Limited” is named “as proprietor of the Trade Mark represented above.”

It took a year to build the rotating 35-foot by 40-foot Pegasus sign. It first beamed its red neon glow in 1934, welcoming the first annual meeting to be held in Dallas by the American Petroleum Institute.

For decades the emblem slowly rotated above the growing city as corporate consolidations and mergers changed Socony-Vacuum ownership. In 1955 the name of the company changed to Socony Mobil Oil; in 1966 became just Mobil Oil.

A neon Pegasus displayed at the 1939 New York World’s Fair found its way to a Mobil gas station in Casa Linda, Texas, and later to the Old Red Museum of Dallas County History & Culture – where it’s on exhibit today.

Project Pegasus

In 1974 the petroleum icon’s motor ground to a halt. Mobile Oil moved out of the Magnolia building three years later and sold the aging skyscraper and glowing but unmoving sign to the city of Dallas. Twenty-years later, Pegasus’ neon lights finally went out.

As a Denver-based developer restored and transformed the deteriorating Magnolia building into a luxurious 330 room hotel in the late 1990s, a group of patrons and corporate partners joined in to bring the broken and rusty Pegasus sign back to life. They raised more than $600,000 for the project.

The Project Pegasus team targeted New Year’s Eve of 1999 and dawn of the new millennium to reintroduce Dallas citizens to their petroleum heritage landmark. Restoration of the 8,000-pound sign proved challenging. The derrick-like tower structure was reparable and the old mechanical rotation system could be updated with new technology. But time and weather had damaged the porcelain coated steel signage and neon tubing. New 16-gauge steel panels had to be cut, using the originals as templates.

Only two facilities in the United States were large enough to accommodate baking the emblematic red porcelain onto the new panels; fortunately, both were in Dallas. More than 1,000 feet of new neon tubing was required to trace the familiar outlines as craftsmen and technicians remained faithful to the original.

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A view of Pegasus in photographer Carolyn Brown’s 2004 book “Dallas: Where Dreams Come True.”

The efforts of all were rewarded at midnight on December 31, 1999, when fireworks and millennium celebrations welcomed Pegasus back to the Dallas skyline.

“You can’t tell the new one from the old one except for the fact that the faces are now red and not rusty,” explained one of the restorers (see Sign Makers Restore Historical Flying Red Horse). “We replaced every old piece with a new piece that was exactly the same as it was before.”

The Pegasus sign “is a beloved icon of the city of Dallas,” proclaimed Kay Kallos, public art manager in the Office of Cultural Affairs, which manages its maintenance.

Mobil Oil merged with Exxon in 1999, creating today’s ExxonMobil, headquartered in Irving, Texas. Visit the Old Red Museum of Dallas County History & Culture.

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The American Oil & Gas Historical Society preserves U.S. petroleum history. Support this energy education website with a contribution today. For membership information, contact bawells@aoghs.org. © 2020 Bruce A. Wells.

Citation Information: Article Title: “Mobil’s High-Flying Trademark.” Author: Aoghs.org Editors. Website Name: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. URL: https://aoghs.org/petroleum-art/high-flying-trademark. Last Updated: February 6, 2020. Original Published Date: March 14, 2010.

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