seismic waves

A sign and marker commemorating the August 9, 1921, test of seismic technology is located on I-35 at a scenic turnout near Ardmore, Oklahoma, about halfway between Oklahoma City and Dallas.

An earth science technology – reflection seismography – revolutionized petroleum exploration in the 1920s. Seismic waves soon led to oilfield discoveries worldwide. The technology evolved from efforts to locate enemy artillery during World War I.

seismic waves

A monument in Seminole, Oklahoma, commemorates the December 4, 1928, birth of reflection, a vital petroleum exploration technology.

Although the new way of finding petroleum reserves came from several competing post-war inventors, a 1921 experiment of an Oklahoma physicist stood out.

“Oklahoma is the birthplace of the reflection seismic technique of oil exploration,” proclaims the Oklahoma Historical Society.

“This geophysical method records reflected seismic waves as they travel through the earth helping to find oil bearing formations,” the historical society notes on a granite monument northeast of Ardmore.

The technology has been responsible for discovering many of the world’s largest oil and natural gas fields, containing billions of barrels of oil and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas.

According to Oklahoma oil patch historians, it was thanks to pioneering research led by Dr. J.C. Karcher, that the first reflection seismograph geologic section was measured during an experiment near Ardmore in 1921.

seismic waves

Scientists chose Oklahoma’s Arbuckle Mountains to test a new technology in 1921, seismic surveying, “because an entire geologic section from the Basal Permian to the basement mass of granite is exposed.”

Karcher, raised on a farm near Hennessey, received both electrical engineering and physics degrees from the University of Oklahoma in 1916.

“The Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma were selected for a pilot survey of the technique and equipment, because an entire geologic section from the Basal Permian to the basement mass of granite is exposed, the historical society explains, adding that limited testing  previously was done in  June 1921 on the outskirts of Oklahoma City.

“Verification and confirmation testing was conducted in the Arbuckles beginning July 4, 1921, by Dr. Karcher and Dr. W.P. Haseman, Dr. D.W. Ohern and Dr. Irving Perrme of the University of Oklahoma. Results were promising,” the society notes on its marker.

Funded by Oklahoma City oilman Frank Buttram, the men formed the Geological Engineering Company. The experiments indicated that their seismograph could reveal subsurface structures capable of holding oil.

“The world’s first reflection seismograph geologic section was measured on August 9, 1921, along vines branch, a few miles north of Dougherty near here,” the marker explains before concluding:

“The reflection technique has become the major method of energy exploration throughout the world. By 1983 more than 70 percent of the 18, 600 members of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists in 112 countries were involved in reflection seismography.”

Seismic finds Oklahoma Oil

Seismic technology first helped find oil in 1928 when Amerada Petroleum Corporation drilled into the Viola limestone formation and struck oil on December 4 near Seminole, Oklahoma.

The well was the world’s first oil discovery in a geological structure that had been identified by reflection seismography. Others soon followed as the new exploration technology revealed dozens of oilfields. Learn more at Greater Seminole Oil Boom.

The 1928 seismic survey, conducted by Amerada subsidiary Geophysical Research, used technology that evolved from the experiments of Karcher and his Oklahoma University colleagues. But they were not alone.

During World War I, inventors Reginald Fessenden and Ludger Mintrop independently contributed to the new earth science.

Work by Fessenden, chief physicist for the Submarine Signaling Company of Boston, helped make the technology smaller and more practical for the field. Mintrop, a native of Imperial Germany, was equally important.

seismic waves

Seismic wave paths reflect from the top of bedrock to detectors (or geophones) on the land surface. Image courtesy Geologic Resources.

During World War I he had developed portable seismic detection equipment to locate Allied artillery for the German Army.

But the Oklahoma Historical Society is steadfast that Karcher’s seismic design dates back to 1917, when he was an employee of the U.S. Bureau of Standards.

“Both the German and American versions, crude contrivances at best, were intended for use in locating enemy artillery by measuring the seismic vibrations produced by their firing,” the historical society explains.

Although both Mintrop and J.C. Karcher, who was president of Geophysical Research, would secure patents, Karcher’s successful apparatus changed American petroleum exploration. His methodology – and his 1928 Seminole oil discovery – have earned him the title “Father of Reflection Seismography.”

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