New London Texas School Explosion

Roughnecks from the East Texas oilfield rushed to New London school after the March 18, 1937, explosion – and searched for survivors throughout the night. Photo courtesy New London Museum.

At 3:17 p.m. on March 18, 1937, with just minutes left in the school day and more than 500 students and teachers inside the building, a natural gas explosion leveled most of an East Texas school.

Hundreds died at New London High School in Rusk County after odorless natural gas leaked into the basement and ignited.

The force of the explosion was felt even four miles away. Parents, many of them roughnecks from the East Texas oilfield, rushed to the school.

Despite immediate rescue efforts, 298 died, most from grades 5 to 11 (dozens more later died of injuries). They are remembered today at New London School Disaster.

After an investigation, the cause of the school explosion was found to be an electric wood-shop sander that sparked unscented gas that had pooled beneath and in the walls of the school.

“The school was newly built in the 1930s for close to $1 million and, from its inception, bought natural gas from Union Gas to supply its energy needs,” notes History.com. “The school’s natural gas bill averaged about $300 a month.”

In early 1937 the school board canceled its contract with Union Gas to save money and tapped into a pipeline of residue gas (also called casinghead gas) from Parade Gasoline Company, according to historian James Cornell. “This practice – while not explicitly authorized by local oil companies – was widespread in the area,” he notes in The Great International Disaster Book. “The natural gas extracted with the oil was considered a waste product and was flared off.”

Walter Cronkite reaches Scene

A young man working for United Press in Dallas, Walter Cronkite, was among the first reporters to reach the scene of the disaster south of Kilgore, between Tyler and Longview. It was dark and raining.

“He got his first inkling of how bad the incident was when he saw a large number of cars lined up outside the funeral home in Tyler,” notes one local historian. At the scene, floodlights cast long shadows.

New London Texas School Explosion

The explosion hurled a concrete slab 200 feet onto a 1936 Chevrolet. Rusk County, Texas, had one of the richest rural school districts in the United States. On March 18 students were preparing for the next day’s Inter-scholastic meet in Henderson. Photos courtesy New London Museum.

“We hurried on to New London,” Cronkite writes in his book, A Reporter’s Life. “We reached it just at dusk. Huge floodlights from the oilfields illuminated a great pile of rubble at which men and women tore with their bare hands. Many were workers from the oilfields…”

Decades later, Cronkite will add, “I did nothing in my studies nor in my life to prepare me for a story of the magnitude of that New London tragedy, nor has any story since that awful day equaled it.”

David M. Brown, author of Gone at 3:17, describes the “sad irony” of how the East Texas oil boom financed building the wealthiest rural school in the nation in 1934 – and the faulty heating system that permitted raw gas to accumulate beneath it.

According to Brown, it was partly the result of school officials making a bad decision. To save money on heating the school building, the trustees had authorized workers to tap into a pipeline carrying “waste” natural gas produced by a gasoline refinery.

“The resulting explosion that laid waste to a town’s future,” he concludes in his book Gone at 3:17, the Untold Story of the Worst School Disaster in American History. 

Following the disaster, a temporary morgue was set up near the school as well as nearby Overton and Henderson, notes Robert Hilliard, a volunteer for the New London Texas School Explosion Museum.

“Many burials were made in the local Pleasant Hill cemetery that to this day, still symbolize the great loss that families endured, adds Hilliard, who maintains the museum’s website.

“Many of the grave sites display porcelain pictures of the victims,” he says. “Marbles that were once played with were pushed into the cement border outlining the graves.”

Making Natural Gas Safer

As a result of the disaster, Texas passed laws requiring that natural gas be mixed with a malodorant to give early warning of a gas leak. Other states quickly followed.

New London Texas School Explosion

A granite cenotaph was dedicated in 1939 to the more than 300 students and teachers who perished.

Today, the rotten-egg smell associated with natural gas is Mercaptan, the odorant added to provide early warning of any leak.

New London’s community museum, located across the highway from the school site, began in 1992 thanks to years of work by its founder and first curator, Mollie Ward, who was 10 when she survived the explosion.

Ward noted in a 2001 interview that among the museum’s exhibits was a blackboard found in the rubble.

“Sometime in the night a worker found a blackboard that had been on the wall that read ‘Oil and natural gas are East Texas’ greatest mineral blessing,'” said Ward, who spent years helping start a former students association that reunited survivors of the New London explosion.

New London Texas School Explosion

The New London Museum includes extensive personal accounts of the tragedy taken from newspaper articles and personal interviews. Considered state-of-the-art for its time, the school housed grades K-11.

New London Texas School Explosion

One museum exhibit is a recovered blackboard that reads: “Oil and natural gas are East Texas’ greatest mineral blessing.”

Near the museum is a 32-foot-high granite cenotaph dedicated in 1939. In December 1938, a contract for building a monument was awarded to the Premier Granite Quarries of Llano, Texas. Donald Nelson of Dallas was appointed designing and supervising architect for the project.

After a competition in which seven Texas sculptors submitted preliminary models, Herring Coe of Beaumont was awarded the task of making the model for the sculptural block at the top.

A 20-ton sculptured block of Texas granite – supported by two monolithic granite columns – depicts twelve life-size figures, representing children coming to school, bringing gifts and handing in homework to two teachers.

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