California Oil Seeps
A 1969 oil spill from a California offshore platform transformed the public’s view of the American petroleum industry and helped launch the modern environmental movement and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Natural California seeps leak thousands of tons of petroleum every day – and have for several hundred thousand years.
On January 28, 1969, after drilling 3,500 below the ocean floor, a Union Oil Company drilling platform six miles off Santa Barbara, suffered a blowout.
Between 80,000 barrels and 100,000 barrels of oil flowed into the Pacific Ocean and onto beaches, including Summerland – where the U.S. offshore industry began in 1896 with wells drilled from piers.
Problems at the Union Oil platform began when roughnecks began to retrieve the pipe in order to replace a drill bit and pressure became dangerously low, according to a report by the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB).
“A natural gas blowout occurred. An initial attempt to cap the hole was successful but led to a tremendous buildup of pressure. The expanding mass created five breaks in an east-west fault on the ocean floor, releasing oil and gas from deep beneath the earth,” UCSB noted.
It will take workers days to control the well – by pumping drilling mud down the borehole at a rate of 1,500 barrels an hour.
“The techniques, equipment and resources necessary to combat an oil spill of this magnitude did not exist at the time,” said UCSB geologist Keith C. Clarke. “On the eleventh day, chemical mud was successfully used to seal the cracks in the seafloor, but only after approximately three million gallons of oil escaped.”
In the spring following the oil spill, Earth Day was born nationwide. “Many consider the publicity surrounding the oil spill a major impetus to the environmental movement,” Clarke said.
Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will be established the following year – joining several other federal agencies regulating the industry – public opinion turns against offshore exploration. “Images of spilled oil bubbling to the ocean’s surface and covering birds and other wildlife have firmly cemented in much of the public mind that offshore drilling is dangerous,” claims energy policy analyst Drew Thornley in Energy & the Environment: Myths & Facts.
“Thus the means by which the U.S. obtains about 25 percent of the nation’s natural gas production and about 24 percent of its oil production have become, understandably, linked to environmental degradation,” Thornley adds.
According to the National Research Council, natural processes are responsible for more than 60 percent of the petroleum that enters North American ocean waters – and more than 45 percent of the petroleum that enters ocean waters worldwide.
A 2009 study by Woods Hole and UCSB was the first to quantify the amount of oil residue in seafloor sediments from natural petroleum seeps off Santa Barbara.
The study estimated the amount of oil in the sediments down current from the seeps to be the equivalent of approximately 80 Exxon Valdez oil spills.
Researchers found that natural offshore seeps near Goleta, California, alone have leaked up to 25 tons of oil each day – for the last several hundred thousand years.
It was near there in Santa Barbara County that beached tar balls indicated the Summerland field extended into the Pacific – leading turn-of-the-century oil companies to build piers.
Science of Seeps
Public debate continues about protecting the environment of coastal California. “Ironically, research shows that drilling can actually reduce natural seepage, as it relieves the pressure that drives oil and gas up from ocean floors and into ocean waters,” notes Thornley in his Energy & the Environment: Myths & Facts.
In 1999, two peer-reviewed studies found that natural seepage in the northern Santa Barbara Channel “was significantly reduced by oil production,” he concludes.
Researchers found that seepage declined 50 percent over two decades because, “as oil was pumped from the reservoir, the pressure that drives natural seepage dropped.”
The Santa Barbara Maritime Museum educates young people about California’s offshore industries, including the diving technologies used in the Santa Barbara Channel. Exhibits explain the continuing process of oil emerging from natural seeps in the channel – today visited by tourists in boats.
To protect southern California’s beaches, one community organization, Stop Oil Seeps California, advocates lifting the state and federal moratoriums on offshore oil exploration and production.
“Only through education can Californians and Americans learn the truth about the massive amounts of natural oil and gas seepage pollution coming from offshore Santa Barbara, California’s coastal areas,” SOS California explains. Learn more about offshore exploration and production technologies at the Ocean Star Offshore Drilling Rig & Museum.
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