In perhaps the first raid on petroleum facilities in warfare, in the spring of 1863 a regiment of Confederate cavalry attacked the oil town of Burning Springs in what will soon become West Virginia. The rebel raiders destroyed equipment and thousands of barrels of oil.

confederates attack oilfield

“The First Virginia (Rebel) cavalry at halt. Sketched from nature by Mr. A. R. Waud.” From Harper’s Weekly, September 27, 1862. Gen. Jones’ Brigade consisted of the 6th, 7th, 11th, 12th Virginia Cavalry Regiments and 35th Virginia Cavalry Battalion.

confederates attack oilfield

The Burning Springs oilfield (at bottom) was destroyed by Confederate raiders in May 1863 when Gen. William “Grumble” Jones and 1,300 troopers attacked in what some call the first oilfield destroyed in a war.

On May 9, 1863, the Burning Springs oilfield is destroyed by Confederate raiders led by Gen. William “Grumble” Jones – “making it the first of many oilfields destroyed in war,” notes McKain, who has added a small oil museum annex near Burning Springs.

Gen. Jones later reported his rebel troops left burning oil tanks, a “scene of magnificence that might well carry joy to every patriotic heart.”

West Virginia Oil History

“After the Civil War, the industry was revived and over the next fifty years the booms spread over almost all the counties of the state,” explains historian David McKain, founder and director of a petroleum museum in Parkersburg.

confederates attack oilfield

In May 1861, the Rathbone brothers use a spring-pole to dig a well at Burning Springs that reaches 303 feet and begins producing 100 barrels of oil a day. An oil boom soon follows.

Almost a century earlier, George Washington had acquired 250 acres in the region because it contained oil and natural gas seeps.

“This was in 1771, making the father of our country the first petroleum industry speculator,” notes McKain, author of Where It All Began, a history of the West Virginia petroleum industry.

As early as 1831, natural gas was moved in wooden pipes from wells to be used as a manufacturing heat source by the Kanawha salt manufacturers.

A thriving commercial oil industry grew in Petroleum and California – towns near Parkersburg.

Then in 1861 at Burning Springs, the Rathbone brothers’ spring-pole oil well reached 303 feet – and began producing 100 barrels of oil a day.

“These events truly mark the beginnings of the oil and gas industry in the United States,” says McKain.

confederates attack oilfield

Founded by oilman David McKain, the Oil and Gas Museum is near the Ohio River at 119 Third Street in downtown Parkersburg, West Virginia. As early as 1831, natural gas was moved in wooden pipes from wells to be used as a manufacturing heat source by salt manufacturers.

“Drilling and producing of both oil and natural gas continues throughout the state to this day,” adds McKain, head of the Oil and Gas Museum in Parkersburg.

The wealth created by petroleum helped bring statehood for West Virginia during the Civil War, he adds.

“Many of the founders and early politicians were oil men – governor, senator and congressman – who had made their fortunes at Burning Springs in 1860-1861,” adds McKain.

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation admitting the state on June 20.

Confederates attack Oilfield

When Confederate Gen. William “Grumble” Jones and 1,300 troopers attacked Burning Springs in the spring of 1863, they destroyed equipment and thousands of barrels of oil.

“The wells are owned mainly by Southern men, now driven from their homes, and their property appropriated either by the Federal Government or Northern men,” said Gen. Jones of his raid on this early oil boom town.

Gen. Jones officially reported to Gen. Robert E. Lee that:

confederates attack oilfield

Confederate cavalry Gen. William “Grumble” Jones

All the oil, the tanks, barrels, engines for pumping, engine-houses, and wagons – in a word, everything used for raising, holding, or sending it off was burned.

Men of experience estimated the oil destroyed at 150,000 barrels. It will be many months before a large supply can be had from this source, as it can only be boated down the Little Kanawha when the waters are high.

The Oil and Gas Museum, maintained by McKain and volunteers, added a small museum at Burning Springs and a park at California, about 27 miles east of Parkersburg on West Virginia 47.

In addition to Where It All Began, McKain has published The Civil War and Northwestern Virginia – The Fascinating Story Of The Economic, Military and Political Events In Northwestern Virginia During the Tumultuous Times Of The Civil War.

McKain continues to lead efforts to promote the state’s petroleum and Civil War heritage.

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