November 11, 1884 – Gas Companies merge to create Consolidated Edison in New York City

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“Bird’s-eye view” illustrates New York and Brooklyn in 1873. The Brooklyn Bridge is under construction at right. Image courtesy Library of Congress.

The largest U.S. gas utility company at the time was created in New York City when six gas-light companies merged to form the Consolidated Gas Company in 1884. Today known as Consolidated Edison Company, “Con Edison” can trace its roots six decades earlier to New York Gas Light Company, which received a charter from the state legislature in 1823.

“Like most early gas companies, New York Gas would focus its efforts on street lighting, in this case, supplementing or replacing the whale-oil lamps that were installed by the city beginning in the 1760s,” a Con Edison historian noted. Prior to the 1884 merger, streets were often being torn up by competing workmen installing or repairing their own company’s lines – and removing those of a rival. “Sometimes these work crews would meet on the same street and brawl, giving rise to the term “gas house gangs.” Learn more in History of Con Edison.

November 12, 1899 – New York World features Mrs. Alford and her Nitro Factory

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A laminated (though wrinkled) newspaper page from 1899 was part of a school project of one of Mrs. Alford’s descendants, according to the Penn-Brad Museum Oil Well Park and Museum in Bradford, Pennsylvania.

An 1899 article in the New York World profiled Mrs. Byron Alford – the “Only Woman in the World who Owns and Operates a Dynamite Factory.” Her dangerous business operated on five acres outside of Bradford, Pennsylvania, with a daily production of 3,000 pounds of nitroglycerin and 6,000 pounds of dynamite. Local drillers used the explosives for “shooting” wells to boost production. The New York newspaper reported that Mrs. Alford manufactured the volatile mixtures in 12 separate buildings, all unpainted and made of wood (less expensive to rebuild). Learn more in Mrs. Alford’s Nitro Factory.

November 12, 1916 – Forest Oil Company formed

Forest Oil “yellow dog” logo.

Forest Oil Company incorporated and began operations in the Bradford oilfield of northern Pennsylvania. The company, after adopting a “yellow dog” lantern logo, launched an important new technology: water-flooding (injecting water into oil-bearing formations) to stimulate production from depleted wells. Water-flooding technology for enhanced recovery spread throughout the petroleum industry – and extended many wells’ lives by as much as 10 years. In 1924, Forest Oil consolidated with the January Oil Company, Brown Seal Oil, Andrews Petroleum and Boyd Oil. The company was headquartered in Denver for decades before merging in 2014 with a privately held Houston company.

November 12, 1999 – Plastics designated Historic Landmark

The American Chemical Society designated the discovery of a high-density polyethylene process as a National Historic Chemical Landmark in a ceremony at the Phillips Petroleum Company in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. The oil company had entered the plastics business in 1951 after discovering a catalyst for creating solid polymers. “The plastics that resulted — crystalline polypropylene and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) — are now the core of a multibillion-dollar, global industry,” the society noted. Among the first customers for Phillips Petroleum plastics was Wham-O, which used it to make Hula Hoops and Frisbees in the 1950s.

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November 13, 1925 – New Oil Discovery at Spindletop, Texas

The Yount-Lee Oil Company started a second major drilling boom at Spindletop, Texas, when the McFaddin No. 2 well began producing 5,000 barrels of oil a day. The well was completed just south of the famous “Lucas Gusher” of 1901. Miles Yount, who had founded his exploration company in 1914, believed Spindletop Hill held more oil – if drilled deeper on its flanks. His well reached a depth of 2,500 feet (more than twice that of the 1901 well) and proved him right. That evening a Beaumont radio station announced the discovery, launching another Texas oil boom.

November 13, 1943 – Roughneck dies in England during Secret WWII Drilling Project

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Herman Douthit died while drilling in an English oilfield. Photo courtesy American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.

Derrickhand Herman Douthit of Caddo Mills, Texas, died in a fall from Well Number 148 in England’s Sherwood Forest. “Rigs shut down for one shift for funeral, then back to work,” recalled Lewis Dugger, a fellow roughneck of Sherwood Forest.

As U-boats strangled oil supplies to the United Kingdom during World War II, a top secret project had brought Americans and their equipment to England for rapidly expanding production from the small Eakring field, regarded as an “unsinkable tanker.” Forty-two volunteers made four crews working 12-hour shifts with “National 50” rigs equipped with 87-foot jackknife masts.

The American roughnecks, who drilled faster than their British counterparts, completed 94 producing wells. The oilfield’s production shot from 300 barrels of oil a day to more than 3,000 barrels of oil a day. Forty-one of the volunteers returned safely in March 1944; Douthit was buried in England’s Canterbury American Cemetery.

November 14, 1927 – Gasometer Explosion shakes Pittsburgh

More often found in Europe, gasometers were replaced by high-pressure vessels for liquefied natural gas.

Three natural gas containers – gasometers – exploded in Pittsburgh, producing “tremors such as might have been caused by a severe earthquake,” according to a 1927 report, which noted the deaths of 28 people and injury of more than 400.

First used in the late 19th century for manufactured gas (and throughout the 20th century for natural gas), gasometers were large, cylindrical containers for storing gas at near atmospheric pressure at ambient temperatures. The volume of stored gas varied, with pressure added from the weight of a movable cap.

According to a 2006 article in Pittsburgh Magazine, workmen had been using acetylene torches to repair a leak on top of a tank with a capacity of 5 million cubic feet of gas. Gasometers structures have been replaced by high-pressure vessels to store natural gas in liquid form (learn more in Horace Horton’s Spheres).

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November 14, 1947 – First Oil Well drilled Out of Sight of Land

The modern offshore petroleum industry began in the Gulf of Mexico with the first oil well successfully completed out of sight of land. Brown & Root Company built the freestanding platform 10 miles offshore for Kerr-McGee and partners Phillips Petroleum and Stanolind.

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The Kermac 16 platform was featured in a 1954 Bell Helicopter advertisement encouraging use of helicopters for offshore transportation.

The unique offshore platform, Kermac 16, could withstand winds as high as 125 miles per hour. Brown & Root constructed the experimental platform at a time when no equipment specifically designed for offshore drilling yet existed.

With $450,000 invested, Kerr-McGee completed the discovery well, which produced 960 barrels of oil a day in about 20 feet of water off Louisiana’s gradually sloping Gulf of Mexico coast.

Kerr-McGee had purchased World War II surplus utility freighters and materials to provide supplies, equipment and crew quarters for the drilling site at Ship Shoal Block 32.

Sixteen 24-inch pilings were sunk 104 feet into the ocean floor to secure the 2,700 square foot wooden deck – which successfully withstood the biggest Category 5 hurricane of the 1947 season a week after drilling had begun.

Kermac 16 produced 1.4 million barrels of oil and 307 million cubic feet of natural gas before being shut down in 1984. Learn more about offshore pioneers and technology in Offshore Petroleum History and Deep Sea Roughnecks.

November 14, 1947 – WW II “Big Inch” Pipelines sold for $143 Million

Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation, a company formed 11 months earlier specifically to acquire the World War II surplus 24-inch “Big Inch” and 20-inch “Little Big Inch” pipelines, won with a bid of $143,127,000 – the largest sale of the war’s surplus material to the private sector. By the 1950s, Texas Eastern Transmission had converted both oil products pipelines to natural gas, which was needed for the Appalachian region. Today, transmission has become bi-directional for carrying natural gas from the Marcellus and Utica shale to markets in the Midwest and Gulf Coast.

November 15, 1952 – Williston Basin produces One-Millionth Barrel of Oil

The Williston Basin produced its millionth barrel of oil, which came from five fields in three counties in North Dakota. By the end of 1952, monthly production would reach 356,000 barrels of oil. “Oil was first found in the Williston Basin along the Cedar Creek Anticline in southeastern Montana, in the 1920s,” noted the North Dakota Geological Survey in 1988. The basin did not become a major producing area until Amerada Petroleum began the search for oil there in 1946 — and found it on Clarence Iverson’s farm in 1951. Learn more in First North Dakota Oil Well.

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Listen online to Remember When Wednesdays on the weekday morning radio show Exploring Energy from 9:20 a.m to 9:45 a.m. (Eastern Time). Executive Director Bruce Wells and Volunteer Contributing Editor Kris Wells call in on the last Wednesday of each month. Support our energy education mission with a contribution today. Contact bawells@aoghs.org for membership information. © 2019 Bruce A. Wells.

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