This Week in Petroleum History, April 29 – May 5
April 30, 1929 – Marland Oil and Continental Oil become Conoco
After discovering several prolific Oklahoma oilfields, Marland Oil Company acquired Continental Oil Company to create a network of service stations in 30 states. Future Oklahoma Governor Ernest W. Marland had founded Marland Oil in 1921; Continental Oil Company was founded in 1875 in Utah.
Headquartered in Ponca City, the new company retained the name of Continental Oil, but adopted the well-known Marland red triangle trademark, replacing the “Marland Oils” text with “Conoco.” In 2002, the company merged with Phillips Petroleum, which had incorporated in 1917, to become today’s ConocoPhillips. Learn more by visiting the ConocoPhillips Petroleum Museums.
April 30, 1955 – “Landmen” form Trade Association
Today’s American Association of Professional Landmen with about 15,000 members nationwide was organized as a petroleum landmen trade association in Fort Worth, Texas. Landmen research records to determine ownership, locate mineral and land owners and negotiate oil and natural gas leases, trades and contracts. They also help ensure compliance with governmental regulations, according to the AAPL website.
May 1, 1860 – First West Virginia Oil Well
Virginia’s petroleum industry began about one year before the Civil War when John Rathbone found oil after drilling near Burning Springs Run in what today is West Virginia.
The well reached 300 feet and began producing 100 barrels of oil a day. Rathbone partnered with his brother John as the area experienced a drilling boom – the first to take place outside the Pennsylvania oil regions. By the end of 1860, more than 600 oil leases were registered in the Wirt County court-house. Warehouses were built along the Little Kanawha River, which reached the Ohio River at Parkersburg.
“These events truly mark the beginnings of the oil and gas industry in the United States,” noted West Virginia historian David McKain in 1994, adding that the region’s sudden oil wealth helped lead to statehood in June 1863. Just one month earlier, Confederate cavalry attacked Burning Springs, destroying oilfield tanks and equipment.
May 1, 1916 – Harry Sinclair founds Sinclair Oil & Refining
Harry Ford Sinclair brought together a collection of several depressed oil properties, five small refineries and many untested leases – all acquired at bargain prices. He began with $50 million in assets and borrowed another $20 million to form Sinclair Oil & Refining Corporation.
In its first 14 months, Sinclair’s New York-based company produced six million barrels of oil for a net income of almost $9 million. The company’s petroleum refining capacity grew to 150,000 barrels of oil a day in 1932.
Destined to become one of the oldest continuous names in the U.S. petroleum industry, in 1930 the company began using an Apatosaurus (then called a Brontosaurus) in its advertising, sales promotions and product labels. Millions of visitors marveled at the green Jurassic giant in Sinclair’s “Dinoland” New York World’s Fair pavilion in 1934 – and again in 1964. Learn more in Dinosaur Fever – Sinclair’s Icon.
May 1, 2001 – Plaza honors Oil Pioneers
The Conoco Oil Pioneers of Oklahoma Plaza – an outdoor educational exhibit area – was dedicated at the Sam Noble Museum at the University of Oklahoma, Norman. “The history of the state of Oklahoma is inextricably linked with the remarkable history of the oil industry,” proclaimed then Conoco Chairman Archie Dunham. “The individuals identified here are true Oklahoma oil pioneers in that their endeavors were most significant in the development of the oil and gas industry in this very young state.” Tom Slick, Oklahoma’s King of the Wildcatters, is among those honored in the Conoco Plaza. Slick, a self-taught geologist and former landman, discovered the giant Cushing-Drumright oilfield in 1912.
May 3, 1870 – “Yellow Dog” Lantern with Two Spouts patented
Jonathan Dillen of Petroleum Centre, Pennsylvania, received a patent for his “safety derrick lamp” – a two-wicked lantern that became known in America’s early oilfields as the “yellow dog.”
Dillen’s lamp was designed “for illuminating places out of doors, especially in and about derricks, and machinery in the oil regions, whereby explosions are more dangerous and destructive to life and property than in most other places.”
How the once popular lamp got its name has remained a mystery, but some say the two burning wicks resembled a dog’s glowing eyes at night. Learn more in Yellow Dog – Oilfield Lantern.
May 4, 1869 – Offshore Drilling Platform Design patented
The first U.S. patent for an offshore oil drilling rig was issued to Thomas Rowland, owner of Continental Iron Works in Greenpoint, New York, for his “submarine drilling apparatus.”
Many experts believe this remarkable 1869 patent helped inspire some offshore exploration technologies used today. Rowland designed a fixed, working platform for drilling offshore to a depth of 50 feet.
Although his rig was designed to operate in shallow water, the anchored, four-legged tower resembles modern offshore fixed platforms. Rowland and his Continental Iron Works also became a leader in petroleum storage tank design and construction. The offshore wells completely out of sight from land were drilled in 1947 in the Gulf of Mexico, as technologies advanced after Rowland’s patent. (see Offshore Rig Patent). The American Society of Civil Engineers began awarding The Thomas Fitch Rowland Prize in 1882.
May 5, 1889 – Construction begins on Largest U.S. Refinery
Seventeen miles east of downtown Chicago, Standard Oil Company began construction of a 235-acre refinery complex on May 5, 1889. The refinery, using advanced processes introduced by John D. Rockefeller, was the largest in the United States at the time. Using a newly patented method, the Whiting, Indiana, refinery processed sulfurous “sour crude” from the Lima, Ohio, oilfields – transported on Rockefeller-controlled railroads. The refinery (Today owned by BP) produced vast amounts of high-quality kerosene to meet demand for use in home lamps. Learn more in Standard Oil Whiting Refinery.
May 5, 1907 – A Marker to North Texas Petroleum History
Near Oil City (today Petrolia), Texas, the Clayco Oil & Pipeline Company completed the Lockridge No. 1 well, proclaiming it the first commercial natural gas well in the state. The company placed a marker at the site in the Henrietta-Petrolia field east of Wichita Falls. The granite monument off Texas Highway 148 notes that Lone Star Gas Company built the region’s first large-diameter, long-distance pipeline to transport natural gas from the field to Fort Worth and Dallas in 1920.
The marker also credits the first oil well in North Texas to local rancher J.W. Lochridge, who drilled a shallow well in search of water. According to a 2016 article in North Texas Farm & Ranch, “Lochridge was disappointed because he needed water for his livestock. He found a use for the oil, using it in his dipping vats to rid his cattle of parasites. Lochridge later discovered the value of the black goo and in 1903 formed Lochridge Oil Company. Speculators flooded the area, and Oil City was born.”
In 1911, the Clayco No. 1 oil gusher revealed a massive oilfield near Electra, about 40 miles west of Petrolia (see Pump Jack Capital of Texas). Another North Texas oilfield between the two towns was discovered in 1918 at boom town Burkburnett.
Recommended Reading: Life and Death of an Oilman: The Career of E. W. Marland (1974); Where it all began: The story of the people and places where the oil & gas industry began: West Virginia and southeastern Ohio (1994); A Great Name in Oil: Sinclair Through Fifty Years (1966); Offshore Pioneers: Brown & Root and the History of Offshore Oil and Gas (1997); East Chicago, Images of America (2016).
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