June 28, 1887 – Kansans celebrate First Natural Gas Jubilee –
After erecting flambeau arches at the four corners of the town square, citizens of Paola, Kansas, hosted what local leaders described as “the first natural gas celebration ever held in the West.” Excursion trains from nearby Kansas City and elsewhere brought almost 2,000 people, “to witness the wonders of natural gas,” according to the Miami County Historical Museum. The day’s events included the auction of new town lots and an evening “grand illumination” of natural gas street lights — where “the gas was attached to a yard sprinkler by a rubber hose, and when it was ignited there appeared nests of small blazes which were beautiful and attractive.”
Learn more in First Kanas Oil Well.
June 28, 1967 – Hall of Petroleum opens in Smithsonian Museum
The Hall of Petroleum opened at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of History and Technology in Washington, D.C. Exhibits included cable-tool and rotary drilling rigs and pumping units, and featured the industry’s onshore and offshore technologies up to 1967. None are on display today.
Visitors to what is now the National Museum of American History (since 1980) were greeted by a mural painted by Delbert Jackson of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Jackson spent two years creating the 13-foot by 56-foot painting with scenes of oil and natural gas exploration, production, refining, and transportation.
Jackson’s “Panorama of Petroleum” featured industry pioneers and served as a visual map to the hall’s many oilfield technology exhibits. “If the hall can increase the public’s knowledge of and respect for the technical skill and know-how of those who make this energy available, it will have served its purpose,” noted Curator Philip Bishop in the exhibit’s catalog.
When the “Hall of Petroleum” exhibit closed, the mural was put into storage for three decades until being placed on display at Tulsa International Airport.
Learn more in Smithsonian’s “Hall of Petroleum.“
June 29, 1956 – Interstate Highway System enacted
The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, became law. Passed at the urging of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the act provided 90 percent federal funding for a “system of interstate and defense highways,” and authorized spending $25 billion through 1969 for construction of about 41,000 miles of interstates.
“Of all his domestic programs, Eisenhower’s favorite by far was the Interstate System,” noted historian Stephen Ambrose. The thirty-fourth president urged passage of the act for national defense; interstates would be needed for evacuating major cities during a nuclear attack.
June 30, 1864 – First Oil Tax funds Civil War
The federal government taxed oil for the first time when it levied a $1 per barrel tax on production from Pennsylvania oilfields.
Desperate for revenue to fund the Civil War as early as 1862, Treasury Secretary Salmon Chase advocated a $6.30 tax per barrel of oil and $10.50 per barrel on refined products. Angry oil producers rallied against the tax in Oil City, Pennsylvania, and sent delegates to Washington, D.C., where they negotiated a tax of $1 per 42-gallon barrel of oil.
July 1, 1919 – Top Independent Producers join Association
The two-year-old Mid-Continent Oil & Gas Association (today’s U.S. Oil & Gas Association) established its Kansas-Oklahoma Division in Tulsa.
Mid-Continent members were a “who’s who” of top independent producers: Frank Phillips of Phillips Petroleum; E.W. Marland, whose company became Conoco; W.G. Skelly, founder of Skelly Oil; H.H. Champlin, founder of Champlin Oil; and Alf Landon, the 1936 Republican presidential candidate. Robert S. Kerr, co-founder of Kerr-McGee Oil Company was president of the Mid-Continent Division from 1935 through 1941.
July 1, 1922 – Discovery of Smackover Field adds to Arkansas Drilling Boom
First settled by French fur trappers in 1844, Smackover, Arkansas, had a population of just 90 people in 1922 when a wildcat well erupted oil. The well, drilled to 2,066 feet by sawmill owner Sidney Umsted, discovered the 25,000-acre Smackover field. Within six months, 1,000 wells were drilled with a success rate of 92 percent.
Smackover’s population grew to 25,000 and its uncommon name quickly attained national attention. Nearby less than two years earlier, the first commercial oil well in Arkansas, the Busey-Armstrong No. 1, had revealed the giant El Dorado field and launched the career of a young H.L. Hunt (see First Arkansas Oil Wells).
July 1, 1938 – The Texas Company discovers Illinois Oilfield
Using a newly introduced technology of seismic exploration, geologists for the Texas Company (later Texaco) found hidden anticlines with commercial quantities of oil in Marion County, Illinois. By January 1939 the Salem field was ranked seventh in U.S. daily production. In just one year the field produced more than 20 million barrels of oil. Natural gas production in Illinois began as early as 1853 when marsh or “drift gas” was produced from two water wells drilled near Champaign.
Visit the Illinois Oilfield Museum.
July 2, 1910 – Naval Petroleum Reserves established by Taft
As the Navy converted from coal to oil-burning ships, President William Howard Taft established three Naval Petroleum Reserves. In a message to Congress he explained: “As a prospective large consumer of oil by reason of the increasing use of fuel oil by the Navy, the federal government is directly concerned both in encouraging rational development and at the same time insuring the longest possible life to the oil supply.”
The last U.S. battleship to be built with coal-fired boilers, the U.S.S. Texas, was launched in 1912 and converted to oil-fired boilers in 1926. Learn more in Petroleum and Sea Power.
July 2, 1913 – Gas-Electric Hybrid marks Beginning of End of Steam Trains
While most locomotives were still steam-powered, General Electric built the first commercially successful gasoline-powered engine locomotive in the United States. Two General Motors 175-horsepower V-8s powered two 600-volt, direct current generators to propel the 57-ton locomotive to a top speed of 51 miles per hour.
The Electric Line of Minnesota Company purchased the new gas-powered electric hybrid for $34,500 and named it “Dan Patch” in honor of the world’s champion harness horse of the time. By 1930, powerful 600-horsepower diesel engines with G.E. generators would launch modern train travel with “Streamliners.” Learn more in Adding Wings to the Iron Horse.
July 2, 1920 – West Columbia oilfield Oilfield discovered in Texas
The Abrams No. 1 oil well erupted oil in Brazoria County, Texas, revealing the West Columbia oilfield as a major field, producing up to 30,000 barrels of oil a day, according to the Handbook of Texas Online. The well, drilled by the Texas Company (later Texaco), came in on a 1,650-acre tract owned by railroad official William H. Abrams, who made other notable discoveries. “Oil discovered on Abrams’s land in Mitchell County that same year initiated some of the first petroleum production in the Permian Basin,” where drillers from El Paso completed the Santa Rita No. 1 well in 1923.
Visit the Columbia Historical Museum.
July 4, 1906 – Louisiana adopts Natural Gas Conservation
Joining the growing number of petroleum-producing states, Louisiana enacted conservation measures to prevent waste. Lawmakers passed an act, “to protect the natural gas fields of this state.” The conservation law imposed penalties for “failure to cap out of control wells, doing injury to pipe lines, or wastefully burning natural gas from any well into the air.” The new laws resulted from lessons learned from the Indiana Natural Gas Boom and other gas-producing states.
Recommended Reading: Official Guide to the Smithsonian (2016); Eisenhower: Soldier and President (1968); Texas Rich: The Hunt Dynasty (1982); Crazy Good: The True Story of Dan Patch, the Most Famous Horse in America (2009); Evolution of the American Diesel Locomotive, Railroads Past and Present (2007); The Extraction State, A History of Natural Gas in America (2021). Your Amazon purchase benefits the American Oil & Gas Historical Society. As an Amazon Associate, AOGHS earns a commission from qualifying purchases.
The American Oil & Gas Historical Society preserves U.S. petroleum history. Become an AOGHS supporting member and help maintain this energy education website and expand historical research. For more information, contact firstname.lastname@example.org. © 2021 Bruce A. Wells.