April 9, 1914 – Ohio Cities Gas Company founded

Ohio Cities Gas Company became Pure Oil in 1917.

In Columbus, Ohio, Beman Gates Dawes and Fletcher Heath formed the Ohio Cities Gas Company. Three years later they acquired Pennsylvania-based Pure Oil Company and adopted the name in 1920. Pure Oil had been founded in Pittsburgh in 1895 by independent oil and gas producers, oil refiners, and pipeline operator to counter the market dominance of Standard Oil Company.

Pure Oil sold kerosene to customers in Philadelphia and New York City, becoming just the second vertically integrated oil company after Standard Oil. Headquartered in a Chicago skyscraper it built in 1926, Pure Oil became one of the 100 largest industrial corporations in the United States. The company in 1965 was acquired by Union Oil Company of California, now a division of Chevron.

April 10, 1866 – Densmore Oil Tank Cars

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The Densmore Tank Car will briefly revolutionize the bulk transportation of oil to market. Hundreds of the tank cars were in use by 1866.

Inventors James and Amos Densmore of Meadville, Pennsylvania, received a patent for their “Improved Car for Transporting Petroleum,” which they developed a year earlier in the booming northwestern Pennsylvania oil region.

Their patent illustrated a simple but sturdy design for securing two re-enforced containers on a typical railroad car. Although these early oil-tank cars were an improvement, they soon would be replaced by the more practical single horizontal types seen today

After leaving the oil transportation business, Amos Densmore in 1875 came up with a new way for arranging a “type writing machine” keyboard so commonly used letters no longer collided and stuck. His “Q-W-E-R-T-Y” arrangement improved the original 1868 invention. James Densmore’s financial success in the oilfields helped establish the Densmore Typewriter Co. Learn more in Densmore Oil Tank Cars.

April 13, 1974 – Oklahoma Well sets World Depth Record

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A 1974 souvenir of the Bertha Rogers, which drilled almost six miles deep in the Anadarko Basin.

After 504 days and about $7 million, the Bertha Rogers No. 1 well reached a total depth of 31,441 feet before being stopped by liquid sulfur. Drilled in the heart of Oklahoma’s Anadarko Basin, it was the deepest well in world for several years and the deepest in the United States for three decades until finally exceeded in 2004.

Robert Hefner III’s GHK Company and partner Lone Star Producing Company believed natural gas reserves resided deep in the basin, which extends across West-Central Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle. Their first attempt began in 1967 and took two years to reach what at the time is a record depth, 24,473 feet.

The pioneering well found plenty of natural gas, according to historian Robert Dorman, but because of government price controls, “the sale of the gas could not cover the high cost of drilling so deeply – $6.5 million, as opposed to a few hundred thousand dollars for a conventional well.”

The Bertha Rogers No. 1 exploratory well began drilling in November 1972, averaging about 60 feet per day. By April 1974, the bottom hole pressure and temperature reached almost 25,000 pounds per square inch and 475 degrees. It took eight hours for bottom hole cuttings to reach the surface almost six miles above.

Although no natural gas was produced at the record depth, Bertha Rogers was competed as a natural gas discovery at 13,000 feet. The 1.3 million pounds of casing was the heaviest ever handled by any drilling rig.

The Bertha Rogers well led to development of deeper drilling technologies and the successful deep gas plays of the 1990s. Learn more in Anadarko Basin in Depth.

April 14, 1865 – Dramatic Oil Company’s failed Oilman turns Assassin

After failing to make his fortune in Pennsylvania oilfields, John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. Just one year earlier Booth had left his acting career to drill an oil well in booming Venango County. He and his friends formed the “Dramatic Oil Company.”

In January 1864, Booth made the first of several trips to Franklin, Pennsylvania, where he leased land on a farm along the Allegheny River. He and several partners, including friends from the stage, formed an oil exploration company.

Although the Dramatic Oil Company’s well produced about 25 barrels of oil a day, Booth wanted more and tried “shooting” the well to increase production. When the well was ruined, he left the Pennsylvania oil region in July 1864. Learn more in Dramatic Oil Company.

April 15, 1897 – Birth of the Oklahoma Petroleum Industry

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Photo of replica Nellie Johnstone No. 1 derrick courtesy Discovery 1 Park.

A large crowd gathered at the Nellie Johnstone No. 1 well near Bartlesville, in the Indian Territory that will become Oklahoma. Drilling began in January 1897, the same month that Bartlesville was incorporated with a population of about 200 people. Four months later, at 1,320 feet, the Nellie Johnstone No.1 well (named for partner William Johnstone’s six year-old daughter), showed signs of oil.

On April 15, 1897, George Keeler’s stepdaughter dropped a “go devil” down the well bore to set off a waiting canister of nitroglycerin – producing a gusher that heralded the start of Oklahoma’s oil industry. As the discovery well for the giant Bartlesville-Dewey Field, Nellie Johnstone No.1 ushered in the oil era for Oklahoma Territory. By the time of statehood in 1907, Oklahoma led the world in oil production.

In the 10 years following the discovery, Bartlesville’s population grew to over 4,000 while Oklahoma’s annual oil production reached more than 43 million barrels. Today, a replica 84-foot wooden derrick and a nearby education center help tell the story in Discovery 1 Park, the land donated by the well’s namesake, Nellie Johnstone Cannon, a descendant of a Delaware Chief. Learn more in First Oklahoma Oil Well.


Recommended Reading: Oil on the Brain: Petroleum’s Long, Strange Trip to Your Tank (2008); The Greatest Gamblers: The Epic of American Oil Exploration (1979); Early Days of Oil: A Pictorial History of the Beginnings of the Industry in Pennsylvania (2000); Oil in Oklahoma (1976).



Listen online to Remember When Wednesdays on the weekday morning radio show Exploring Energy from 9:05 a.m to 10 a.m. (Eastern Time). Executive Director Bruce Wells and Volunteer Contributing Editor Kris Wells call in on the last Wednesday of each month. Support our energy education mission with a donation today. Contact bawells@aoghs.org for membership information. © 2018 Bruce A. Wells.