Following an 1859 discovery in Pennsylvania, the young U.S. petroleum industry reached the West Coast in the late 1870s with the first California oil well.

first california oil well

The steam boiler and cable-tools, including the “walking beam,” of Pico Well No. 4 in 1877. Photo by Carleton Watkins courtesy Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection.

California Star Oil Works Company’s Charles Mentry drilled three wells in 1875 and 1876 that showed promise.

The Golden State’s first oil gusher arrived with the fourth well. It will help create a major oil company.

Drilling with a steam-powered cable-tool rig in an area known for its many oil seeps, Mentry discovered the Pico Canyon oil field north of Los Angeles.

California’s first commercial oil well, the Pico Well No. 4 gusher of September 26, 1876, launched other industries, including constructing a pipeline and an oil refinery for producing kerosene.

According to an article in the Los Angeles Times, the well initially produced 25 barrels a day from 370 feet. Mentry improvised many of his cable tools, including making a drill-stem out of old railroad-car axles he welded together.

“The railroad had not then been completed, there was no road into the canyon, water was almost unattainable, and there were no adequate tools or machinery to be had,” notes the Times article.

California Star Oil Works deepened the well to 560 feet, increasing daily production by 125 barrels, and constructed its pipeline from Pico Canyon to the newly built refinery in Newhall, just south of Santa Clarita.

first california oil well

By 1880, California’s first commercial refinery processed oil from its first commercial oil well to make kerosene and other products. Photo courtesy the Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society.

Newhall’s Pioneer Refinery on Pine Street will become the first successful commercial refinery in the West, producing kerosene and lubricants. Giant stills set on brick foundations included two capable of producing 150 barrels a day each.

The city of Santa Clarita received California’s first successful refinery as a gift from Chevron in 1997. Many believe the refinery, today  preserved as a tourist attraction, is the oldest in the world.

Nearby, a popular micro-brewery, Newhall Refinery, produces craft beers at restaurant on Main Street in downtown Newhall.

A major oil company can trace its beginnings to the 1876 Pico Canyon oil well, which has been designated a historic site by the California Office of Historic Preservation.

Chevron, once the Standard Oil Company of California, in 1900 acquired Pacific Coast Oil Company. Pacific Coast had become majority owner of California Star Oil Works in 1879.

About 35 miles south of Pico Canyon, a gold prospector discovered the massive Los Angels field in 1892. See Discovering Los Angeles Oil Fields.

first california oil well

Santa Clarita acquired California’s first refinery as a gift from Chevron in 1997. Many believe it to be the oldest existing oil refinery site in the world. Photo by Konrad Summers.

Charles Mentry is remembered by a small town a short distance from the 1876 Pico Canyon discovery well, Mentryville. Visit the Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society website to learn more history about Pico Canyon oil production.

Historic Oil Refineries

There are 142 operable refineries in the United States, according to the Energy Information Administration. The “newest” refinery began operating in 2008 in Douglas, Wyoming, with an initial capacity of 3,000 barrels per day.

The nation’s oldest operating refinery is in Bradford, Pennsylvania, just a few hours east of the first commercial oil well in Titusville. The Bradford field, discovered in November 1871 and later known as America’s “first billion dollar oil field,” increased Bradford’s population to 9,000.

The first well produced just 10 barrels a day from 1,110 feet, but many other wells soon followed. By 1875 leases reached as high as $1,000 per acre. A decade later a sudden decline in the oil field’s production led to a technological breakthrough when geologists suggested that water pressure on oil sand may be used to increase oil production.

first california oil well

The oldest operating U.S. oil refinery began in 1881 in Bradford, Pennsylvania.

Founded in 1881 in McKean County on 131 acres, the American Refining Group, Inc. joined a second Bradford oil boom when oil discovered east of town.

The refinery’s original crude oil capacity was 10 barrels per day; it required five employees to operate.

A company historian notes American Refining was the first to introduce the quart can nationally for motor oils in 1933.

The Bradford refinery now has a rated capacity of 11,000 barrels per day.

Forest Oil Corp. was founded in Bradford in 1916. The Zippo Manufacturing Company was founded there in 1932.

In Neodesha, Kansas, the Norman No. 1 well of 1892 well revealed a petroleum-rich geologic region that would extend across Oklahoma, Texas and Lousiana. Standard Oil built a refinery in Neodesha in 1897 that refined 500 barrels of oil a day – the first to process oil from the giant Mid-Continent field. See Kansas Well reveals Mid-Continent.

first california oil well

Built in 1897, a Standard Oil refinery in Neodesha, Kansas, refined 500 barrels of oil per day – the first to process oil from the Mid-Continent field. From “Kansas Memory” collection of the Kansas Historical Society.

Read more California petroleum history in California Oil Seeps and the Signal Hill Oil Boom.

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