Erle P. Halliburton received a 1921 patent for an improved method for cementing oil wells. It brought greater petroleum production and environmental safety.
When Halliburton received his patent for a “Method and Means for Cementing Oil Wells,” he helped revolutionize how an oil or natural gas well was completed for production.
Founded in 1920, Halliburton’s petroleum equipment and service company headquartered in Ardmore, Oklahoma, received many patents on its way to becoming dominant worldwide in extending the life of oil and natural gas wells.
After working in Burkburnett, Texas, in 1919, Erle Halliburton had moved to the booming Healdton oilfield near Ardmore, where he established the New Method Oil Well Cementing Company.
“It is well known to those skilled in the art of oil well drilling that one of the greatest obstacles to successful development of oil bearing sands has been the encountering of liquid mud water and the like during and after the process of drilling the wells,” Halliburton notes in his June 26, 1920, patent application.
Halliburton’s patent (No. 1,369,891, approved on March 1, 1921) explained that oil well production, hampered by water intrusion that requires time and expense for pumping out, “has caused the abandonment of many wells which would have developed a profitable output.”
His well cementing process isolated the various down-hole zones, guards against collapse of the casing and permits control of the well throughout its producing life. Learn more about well production history in All Pumped Up – Oilfield Technology.
Inventing a Service Company
In 1919, as Halliburton struggled to set up cementing operations in Texas – most petroleum companies were skeptical of cementing casing, says the former editor-in-chief of E&P magazine. “Most wells were doing well, they reasoned, without the new-fangled technology and there was, in the back of their minds, the question of possible well damage resulting from cementing,” explains Bill Pike. “For Halliburton, it was to be an uphill struggle to normalize the practice of cementing a well,” he adds.
Halliburton will patent much of today’s cementing technology – including the jet mixer, the remixer and the float collar, guide shoe and plug system, bulk cementing, multiple-stage cementing, advanced pump technology and offshore cementing technology.
“It is safe to say that in the first half of the 20th century, the formative years, Halliburton dominated the development of cementing technology,” Pike proclaims.
Bill Pike’s article, Cementing is not for Sissies, also notes: “Halliburton was ever the tinkerer. He owned nearly 50 patents. Most are oilfield, and specifically cementing related, but the number includes patents for an airplane control, an opposed piston pump, a respirator, an airplane tire and a metallic suitcase. Halliburton’s only real competitor in the industry was R.C. (Carl) Baker of Baker Oil Tools who also owned around 50 patents.”
Halliburton will develop another revolutionary oilfield technology about three decades after his 1921 “Method and Means for Cementing Oil Wells” patent.
On March 17, 1949, the Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company and Stanolind Oil Company completed a well near Duncan, Oklahoma – the first commercial application of hydraulic fracturing, a new process that dramatically increases oil and natural gas production.
Casing a Well
Cement is first used soon after a well has been spudded – the beginning of drilling operations. The surface hole is lined with steel casing and cement to protect freshwater aquifers.
According to the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), this surface hole may be several hundred or several thousand feet deep. When the predetermined depth is reached, drilling pauses so steel casing can be inserted.
To strengthen the well and protect the environment, cement is then pumped down the surface casing to fill the space between the outside of the casing and the well bore all the way to the surface. This insures the protection of freshwater aquifers and the security of the surface casing.
KGS notes that the casing and the cement typically are tested under pressure for 12 hours before drilling operations resume. A vital piece of equipment for controlling pressure – the blowout preventer – is attached at the top of the surface casing.
Cementing a Well
When drilling has reached total depth and after well-logging and other tests have been completed and analyzed, petroleum company executives must decide whether to complete the well as a producing well – or plug it as a dry hole.
The KGS explains that if the well is to be plugged and abandoned as a dry hole, the well bore is filled with a drilling fluid with additives that prevent its movement from the well bore into the surrounding rock.
Several cement plugs can be used within the well bore at intervals where porosity has been detected, KGS adds. This isolates the porosity zones – and prevents movement of fluids from one formation to another.
If a decision is made to complete the well as a producer, more casing is delivered to the site and the cementing company called.
“The well bore is filled with drilling fluid that contains additives to prevent corrosion of the casing and to prevent the movement of the fluid from the well bore into the surrounding rock,” notes KGS in Petroleum: a primer for Kansas.
Casing may be inserted to a total depth of the hole or a cement plug may have been set at a specific depth and the casing set on top of it.”
The cement is then pumped down the casing and displaced out of the bottom with drilling fluid. The cement then flows up and around the casing, filling the space between the casing and the well bore.
Special tools are sometimes used with the casing which allow the setting of cement between the outside of the casing and the well bore at specific intervals. This is done to protect the casing and to prevent the movement of formation fluids from one formation to another.
“After the cementing of the casing has been completed, the drilling rig, equipment, and materials are removed from the drill site,” says KGS. “A smaller rig, known as a workover rig or completion rig, is moved over the well bore. The smaller rig is used for the remaining completion operations.”
A well-perforating company is then called to the well site, adds the KGS article, because it is necessary to perforate holes in the casing at the proper position to allow the oil and natural gas to enter the casing. Learn more in Downhole Bazooka. Halliburton and rival service company Baker Hughes combine more than a century of oilfield service technologies. See History of Halliburton and Baker Hughes.
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